Water is one of the most basic necessities which are needed for cervical on the Earth. Water covers 71% of the total area of Earth. However, it is no secret that it is a struggle to find pure water in all this abundance, only 0.5% of freshwater is available to access.

Thus, the technology advancements urged people to loom for alternative ways to acquire fresh water which can be used by them. Thus, several water treatments are done to make it appropriate for a specific end use. Potable water converts to sewage after use which then has to be treated in order not to cause too much eutrophication of lakes,rivers, seas.

Water has to be disinfected in order to remove any microorganisms present in the water.Faeces can be a source of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths. The destruction of microbial pathogens is essential, and commonly involves the use of reactive chemical agents such as suspended solids, to remove bacteriaalgaevirusesfungi, and minerals including iron and manganese. These substances continue to cause great harm to several lower developed countries who do not have access to water purification.

The process of water treatment involves 4 steps which are:-


1.COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION- In this step, particles of positive charges are released into the water which will enable neutralizing negative particles of dirt and other impurities dissolved in the water. Then particles bind with chemicals to form larger particles called floc.


2.SEDIMENTATIONWhen the flock settles down in the tank given the concentration of its weight. The settling process is called sedimentation.


3.FILTRATIONAfter the settling process. The clear water passes through a series of filters to further purify it, the filters are several agents capable of removing impurities. The agents are sand, gravel, and charcoal in order to eradicate dissolved particles such as parasites,dust, bacteria, viruses etc.


4.DISINFECTION- After the filtration step, the water is doused in disinfectants like (chlorine, chloramine) to kill any remaining parasites, viruses or germs before it is piped to homes and businesses. Thus, the alkaline taste which you experience sometimes is because of these chemicals only.

Sewage or impure water poses a serious threat to all aspects of the environment as well as human beings It harms the farmlands as the untreated water contains chemicals which seep into the crops grown and letter on consumed by human beings and causes various  diseases. The area that is irrigated with untreated water spanms around 30 million hectares of land. It also leads to pathogenic pollution and has direct health effects on developing and underdeveloped countries. Water pollution is a long debated topic and is prevalent in all parts of the world, having a dramatic effect on lives and flora and fauna around us. Thus, if water is left untreated the world will further be exposed to a series of treacherous diseases and unknown phenomena which will not be controllable and surpass our capabilities of deriving fresh water. We believe in treating water in an eco-friendly manner to restore the quality of water and reduce the harms caused by it.

Add ; AOP technology for water, waste water disinfection without using chemicals . 

Cooling towers water treatment.

Reverse osmosis (RO)

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification process that uses a partially permeable membrane to separate ions, unwanted molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended chemical species as well as biological ones (principally bacteria) from water, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be “selective”, this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as solvent molecules, i.e., water, H2O) to pass freely.


In the normal osmosis process, the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration (high water potential), through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration (low water potential). The driving force for the movement of the solvent is the reduction in the Gibbs free energy of the system when the difference in solvent concentration on either side of a membrane is reduced, generating osmotic pressure due to the solvent moving into the more concentrated solution. Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, thus, is reverse osmosis. The process is similar to other membrane technology applications.


Reverse osmosis differs from filtration in that the mechanism of fluid flow is by osmosis across a membrane. The predominant removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or size exclusion, where the pores are 0.01 micrometers or larger, so the process can theoretically achieve perfect efficiency regardless of parameters such as the solution’s pressure and concentration. Reverse osmosis instead involves solvent diffusion across a membrane that is either nonporous or uses nanofiltration with pores 0.001 micrometers in size. The predominant removal mechanism is from differences in solubility or diffusivity, and the process is dependent on pressure, solute concentration, and other conditions. Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other effluent materials from the water molecules

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